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What is ADHD?

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) is a brain disorder that affects how you pay attention, sit still, and control your behaviour. It happens in children and teens and can continue into adulthood. ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder in children. Boys are more likely to have it than girls. It’s usually spotted during the early school years when a child begins to have problems paying attention.
Attention deficit disorder (ADD)) is the old name for ADHD. It was officially changed in the 1990s. Some people still use both names to talk about this one condition. ADHD can’t be prevented or cured. But spotting it early, plus having a good treatment and education plan can help a child or adult with ADHD manage their symptoms
ADHD Symtoms in Children
  • Is easily distracted
  • Doesn’t follow directions or finish tasks
  • Doesn’t seem to be listening
  • Doesn’t pay attention and makes careless mistakes
  • Forgets about daily activities
  • Has problems organizing daily tasks
  • Doesn’t like to do things that require sitting still
  • Often loses things
  • Tends to daydream
  • Often squirms, fidgets, or bounces when sitting
  • Doesn’t stay seated
  • Has trouble playing quietly
  • Is always moving, such as running or climbing on things (In teens and adults, this is more often described as restlessness.)
  • Talks excessively
  • Is always “on the go,” as if “driven by a motor”
  • Has trouble waiting his or her turn
  • Blurts out answers
  • Interrupts others
Special Therapy treatments focus on changing behavior
  • Special education helps a child learn at school. Having structure and a routine can help children with ADHD a lot.
  • Behaviour modification teaches ways to replace bad behaviours with good ones.
  • Social skills training can teach behaviours, such as taking turns and sharing.
  • Psychotherapy (counselling) can help someone with ADHD learn better ways to handle their emotions and frustration. It could help improve their self-esteem. Counselling may also help family members better understand a child or adult with ADHD.
  • Some related useful links – |
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What Is Autism?

Autism, also called autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a complicated condition that includes problems with communication and behaviour. It can involve a wide range of symptoms and skills. ASD can be a minor problem or a disability that needs full-time care in a special facility.

People with autism have trouble with communication. They have trouble understanding what other people think and feel. This makes it hard for them to express themselves, either with words or through gestures, facial expressions, and touch.

People with autism might have problems with learning. Their skills might develop unevenly. For example, they could have trouble communicating but be unusually good at art, music, math, or memory. Because of this, they might do especially well on tests of analysis or problem-solving. More children are diagnosed with autism now than ever before. But the latest numbers could be higher because of changes in how it’s diagnosed, not because more children have a disorder.

Common symptoms of autism include:

A lack of eye contact
A narrow range of interests or intense interest in certain topics
Doing something over and over, like repeating words or phrases, rocking back and forth, or flipping a lever
High sensitivity to sounds, touches, smells, or sights that seem ordinary to other people
Not looking at or listening to other people
Not looking at things when another person points at them
Not wanting to be held or cuddled
Problems understanding or using speech, gestures, facial expressions, or tone of voice
Talking in a sing-song, flat, or robotic voice
Trouble adapting to changes in routine

Autism Treatment

Early treatment can make a big difference in the development of a child with autism. If you think your child shows symptoms of ASD, tell your doctor as soon as possible. What works for one person might not work for another. Your doctor should tailor treatment for you or your child. The two main types of treatments are:

  • Behavioral and communication therapy to help with structure and organization.
  • Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is one of these treatments; it promotes positive behavior and discourages negative behavior.
  • Occupational therapy can help with life skills like dressing, eating, and relating to people.
  • Sensory integration therapymight help someone who has problems with being touched or with sights or sounds. Speech therapy improves communication skills.
  • Some related useful links – |
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What is Dyslexia?

Dyslexia is a learning disorder that affects your ability to read, spell, write, and speak. Kids who have it are often smart and hardworking, but they have trouble connecting the letters they see to the sounds those letters make. For kids who have dyslexia, the brain has a hard time connecting letters to the sounds they make, and then blending those sounds into words. So to someone with dyslexia, the word “cat” might read as “tac” Because of these mix-ups, reading can be a slow and difficult process.

Dyslexia is different for everyone. Some people have a mild form that they eventually learn how to manage. Others have a little more trouble overcoming it. Even if children aren’t able to fully outgrow dyslexia, they can still go to college and succeed in life.

Treatment for Dyslexia

  • Orton-Gillingham This is a step-by-step technique that teaches kids how to match letters with sounds and recognize letter sounds in words.
  • Multisensory instruction teaches kids how to use all of their senses – touch, sight, hearing, smell, and movement – to learn new skills. For example, your child might run his finger over letters made out of sandpaper to learn how to spell.
  • Some related useful links – |
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Who are Slow learners?

A learning disability is a problem that affects how a person receives and processes information. People with learning disabilities may have trouble with any of the following:

  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Doing math
  • Understanding directions

Learning disabilities have nothing to do with how smart a person is. Rather, a person with a learning disability may just see, hear, or understand things differently. That can make everyday tasks, such as studying for a test or staying focused in class, much more difficult. There are strategies a person can learn to make it easier to cope with these differences

Parenting a Child With a Learning Disability

Finding out your child has a learning disability can be overwhelming. Many parents find the process of diagnosing a learning disability incredibly frustrating, and then once the diagnosis comes, they face an uphill battle to get their child the help he or she needs.

The best thing you can do as a parent is simply to love and support your child. These tips can also help you help your child

Learn everything you can.

Get all the facts about your child’s learning disability and how it affects the learning process. Research services and supportive strategies so that you’ll be able to take an active role in deciding on the right treatment for your child.

Be your child’s advocate.
Work with your child’s school to develop an IEP (Individualized Education Plan) — a special plan that sets goals for your child and describes support that may be needed to reach those goals. Understand special education laws and school policies so you can make sure your child is getting the most out of school. Many services may be available, but they may not be offered until you ask for them.
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What is Down Syndrome?

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in an extra full or partial copy of chromosome 21. This extra genetic material causes the developmental changes and physical features of Down syndrome.

Each person with Down syndrome is an individual – intellectual and developmental problems may be mild, moderate or severe. Some people are healthy while others have significant health problems such as serious heart defects.

Children and adults with Down syndrome have distinct facial features. Though not all people with Down syndrome have the same features, some of the more common features include:

Flattened face
Small head
Short neck
Protruding tongue
Upward slanting eye lids (palpebral fissures)
Unusually shaped or small ears
Poor muscle tone
Broad, short hands with a single crease in the palm
Relatively short fingers and small hands and feet
Excessive flexibility
Tiny white spots on the colored part (iris) of the eye called Brushfield’s spots
Short height


There’s no way to prevent Down syndrome. If you’re at high risk of having a child with Down syndrome or you already have one child with Down syndrome, you may want to consult a genetic counsellor before becoming pregnant.

A genetic counsellor can help you understand your chances of having a child with Down syndrome. He or she can also explain the available prenatal tests and help explain the pros and cons of testing

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